Краеведческий экскурс «Первые шаги донского образования»

Дорогие друзья! В первый день нового учебного года мы предлагаем вам вспомнить, с чего начиналось образование на Дону.

 Со второй половины XVIII в. динамика общественной жизни, качественное улучшение социокультурного пространства донского сообщества создали ситуацию, когда традиционная система сохранения и развития социальной памяти начала давать серьезные сбои. Получение образования из сферы частной жизни переместилось в область общевойсковой задачи и превратилось в целенаправленную линию казачьего правительства, которую активно поддержало рядовое казачество. Грамотный казак из категории почитаемого товарища перешел в ранг культурного человека, уважаемого не просто за умение читать и писать, а и за способность здраво судить о многих вещах, за навыки по-новому, добротно обустраивать свою жизнь. Безусловно, не все грамотные казаки отличались такими качествами, да и не так много их было. Кому же удавалось получить образование, у того круто изменялась судьба. Он обязательно выдвигался на должность, а в крайнем случае становился станичным писарем, что по тем временам значило немало. Однако росли требования к уровню и характеру полученных знаний. В донском сообществе все острее стала ощущаться необходимость именно в высокообразованных людях. Эти обстоятельства явились основанием для решения атамана Алексея Ивановича Иловайского о проведении переписи грамотных казаков. В 1787 г. он приказал «…знающих грамоту казаков сделать опись». В результате картина открылась просто удручающая. Поэтому войсковые власти основательно подготовили и начали осуществлять кардинальные меры, направленные на устранение выявленных недостатков.

5 февраля 1790 г. был обнародован приказ Войскового правительства об открытии в Черкасске народного училища. Для обучения детей в народном училище из Санкт-Петербурга пригласили четырех учителей. Начатое новое дело представлялось атаману столь важным, что руководителем открытого учебного заведения он назначил своего сына П. Иловайского. В народном училище существовало два отделения (два разряда) — малое и главное. Выпускники главного разряда после окончания обучения направлялись на работу в качестве учителей начальных классов, войсковых писарей и т. п.

Архивы сохранили для наших современников учебные планы первых народных училищ. В первых двух классах (малое училище) проходили: чтение, письмо, арифметику, катехизис, священную историю, русскую грамматику, чтение и комментирование «Книги о должностях человека и гражданина», чистописание. В двух старших классах (хотя их бывало и три) преподавались: катехизис (изложение христианского вероучения в форме вопросов и ответов), священная история (история христианства и православия), арифметика (часть математики о простейших свойствах чисел и действиях над ними), русская грамматика (система языковых форм и правил письменной речи), история, география, геометрия, механика, физика, естественная история (общие представления о природе и окружающей среде), гражданская архитектура. Впоследствии учебные планы старших классов дополнили и включили в них иностранные языки (немецкий и французский) и основы сельского хозяйства.

Существенной вехой в развитии народного образования на Дону стало открытие во второй половине XIX в. целого ряда учебных заведений. Возникла значительная сеть образовательных учреждений, обеспечившая довольно высокую грамотность населения донского края. В результате казачество вошло в XX в. уже с достаточно развитой культурой знания, подкрепленной лучшими народными традициями.

Видео о ростовских школах:

https://dontr.ru/novosti/na-donu-k-1-sentyabrya-otkroyutsya-bolee-20-novykh-i-rekonstruirovannykh-shkol/

Спасибо за внимание.

Мероприятие подготовила библиотекарь 1 категории икс — Гришина Н.С.

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